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探析NBA拉拉队中的身体规训

类型:英语论文 时间:2017年11月15日

IntroductionThe first is the study of its origin, growth and debating points within it. A keypoint of controversy is whether cheerleading ought to be recognized as a sport in itsown right. Some hold that cheerleading fails to qualify as a legitimate sport primarilybecause of its essential entertainment aspect while others believe that cheerleading isa sport, for it plays a competitive role and involves gymnastic efforts and spirit. Forexample, by analyzing the supportive function and the performative aspects ofcheerleading, Laura Grindstaff and Emily West (507) have summarized the veryreasons why cheerleading is not rated as a sport, saying that “Cheerleading has had adifficult time gaining recognition and respect not just because people are ignorant ofwhat it is really about but also because certain feminine elements of the cheerleadingcanon continue to compromise its legitimacy.”; however, in the meantime, AmyMoritz points out his opposite viewpoint that “While the traditional apologetic femaletries to inject appropriate femininity into athletics and defend their status as women,cheerleaders try to inject masculinity (athletics) into the traditional feminine anddefend their status as athletes.”(4)The second aspect is the analysis about how to interpret the meaning of thisphysical activity, namely cheerleading. For instance, in the article “What Does Girls’Cheerleading Communicate?”, George Kurman not only summarizes the previousanalysis on a bundle of messages cheerleading communicates such as discipline,school spirit and participation in mass culture but also believes that cheerleading alsomeans sex and sexism, sympathetic magic, survival of the fittest and circus substitute,etc.(2-5) Besides, Pamela J. Bettis and Natalie Guice Adams (7) have collectivelyexplored the sexual tensions embedded in cheerleading that “all adolescent girls mustfind ways to negotiate the landscape of girlhood where they are expected to be nice,confident girls who are neither sluts nor snobs. However, cheerleaders find thatpathway even more treacherous since they occupy a public position that situates themboth as a wholesome girl and a sexy tease.”........1.2 Scheduled Use of TimeThe disciplines, which analyse space, break up and rearrange activities, must alsobe understood as machinery for adding up and capitalizing time. (Foucault 153) Thusscheduling the use of time is another way to discipline the body. The timearrangement, time utilization and management of participants ar

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